Captions English Add a one-line explanation of what this file represents. Summary [ edit ] Description Reclam ub, Shakespeare, Irrungen. Deutsch: Reclam-Verlag, Stuttgart Nr.
English-German translation for "Comedy of Errors"
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Namespaces File Discussion. Views View Edit History. This page was last edited on 25 October , at The surrounding area is known to have been settled in the Neolithic era, and Ziegelroda Forest contains approximately 1, barrows. The treasure-hunters claimed the artifacts were discovered within a pit inside the bank-and-ditch enclosure. The precise dating of the Nebra sky disk depended upon the dating of a number of Bronze Age weapons, which were offered for sale with the disk and said to be from the same site.
These axes and swords can be dated typologically to the mid 2nd millennium BC. Radiocarbon dating of a birchbark particle found on one of the swords to between and BC confirmed this estimate.
This corresponds to the date of burial, at which time the disk had likely been in existence for several generations. According to an initial analysis of trace elements by x-ray fluorescence by E.
Pernicka, then at the University of Freiberg , the copper originated at Bischofshofen in Austria, while the gold was thought to be from the Carpathian Mountains. The disk may be an astronomical instrument as well as an item of religious significance.
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The blue-green patina of the bronze may have been an intentional part of the original artifact. The find is regarded as reconfirming that the astronomical knowledge and abilities of the people of the European Bronze Age included close observation of the yearly course of the Sun , and the angle between its rising and setting points at the summer and winter solstices. While much older earthworks and megalithic astronomical complexes such as the Goseck circle and Stonehenge had already been used to mark the solstices, the disk is the oldest known "portable instrument" to allow such measurements.
Euan MacKie suggests that the Nebra disk may be linked to the solar calendar reconstructed by Alexander Thom from his analysis of standing stone alignments in Britain. There were initial suspicions that the disk might be an archaeological forgery. Peter Schauer of the University of Regensburg, Germany, argued in that the Nebra disk was a fake and that he could prove that the patina of the disk could have been created with urine, hydrochloric acid and a blow torch within a short amount of time. He had to admit in court that he had never held the disk in his own hands, unlike eighteen scientists who had actually examined the disk.
Richard Harrison, professor of European prehistory at the University of Bristol and an expert on the Beaker people , allowed his initial reaction to be quoted in a BBC documentary: . Although Harrison had not seen the skydisk when he was interviewed, his skepticism was reasonable at that point, but the disk is widely accepted now as authentic and is dated to roughly BC on grounds of typological classification of the associated finds. As the item was not excavated using archaeological methods, even its claimed provenance could have been fictitious - hence its authentication has depended on microphotography of corrosion crystals,  which has produced images of structures that could not be reproduced by a faker.
Harald Meller, lecturing to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland in April , gave a list of facts supporting the authenticity of the disc, and for its having been found at the site on the Mittelberg.
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The most persuasive of the latter was the discovery by the archaeologists — in the pit in which the looters said they had found the metalwork — of a fragment of gold leaf exactly fitting the gap present in the gold leaf covering of the 'sun' symbol when it was originally recovered. The disk was the center of an exhibition entitled Der geschmiedete Himmel German "The smithied sky" , showing 1, Bronze Age artifacts, including the Trundholm sun chariot , shown at Halle from 15 October to 22 May , from 1 July to 22 October in Copenhagen , from 9 November to 5 February in Vienna , from 10 March to 16 July in Mannheim , and from 29 September to 25 February in Basel.
The state of Saxony-Anhalt has registered the disk as a trademark , which has resulted in two lawsuits. In , Saxony-Anhalt successfully sued the city of Querfurt for depicting the disk design on souvenirs.
Saxony-Anhalt also successfully sued the publishing houses Piper and Heyne over an abstracted depiction of the disk on book covers. The defenders argued that as a cultic object, the disk had already been "published" approximately years earlier in the Bronze Age, and that consequently, all protection of intellectual property associated with it has long expired. The plaintiff on the other hand, argued that the editio princeps of the disk is recent, and according to German law protected for 25 years, until Another argument concerned the question whether a notable work of art may be registered as a trademark in the first place.
The Magdeburg court decided in favour of the State of Saxony-Anhalt. The case was appealed and on the basis of decisions from the Oberlandesgericht Dusseldorf in and the Federal Court of Justice in , the initial ruling was overthrown and the German Patent and Trade Mark Office withdrew the trademark rights.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Artifact found in Nebra, Germany. Unesco memory of the World. January National Geographic : 76—8. European Journal of Mineralogy.